Close Coupled Toilets : These toilets are joined together closely hence the name 'close coupled'. The toilet cistern is physically joined to the toilet pan by means of bolts, in many cases these go through both the cistern and the pan, joining them together by using various rubber washers etc to prevent leaks. As the toilet is fitted together the fitter will place a foam or rubber 'donut' between the cistern and the pan. As the nuts and bolts are tightened the 'donut' compresses between the two creating a seal.The majority of close coupled toilets are open backed.. This is the easiest option to fit and you can take the large waste pipe out in all directions, you can also see any leaks. There are toilets now which have closed backs these are a lot neater as you do not see the pipes behind. They do have limitations:You cannot go left or right with the waste pipe. { we can do a special toilet which can be ordered that gets round this} The waste pipe has to go down or out the back. We do like to mention that you have to really have a good look at your walls and floors.. these toilets need to go flush to the wall so it's best to make sure when they are being installed that the walls and floors are square so avoiding any gaps top or bottom.99% of toilets these days are horizontal outlet. Your fitter then buys either a flexi or a rigid pan connector which fits onto the toilet to convert the flow to left, right etc.